# What Is A Paradox?

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**Published on Apr 24, 2018**- Brilliant: brilliant.org/vsauce2

Thanks to Brilliant for sponsoring this episode.

*** SOURCES LINKS AND MORE ***

“The Ways of Paradox and Other Essays” by Willard Van Orman Quine: www.amazon.com/Ways-Paradox-Other-Essays-Revised/dp/0674948378/

Zeno of Elea, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: plato.stanford.edu/entries/zeno-elea/

Zeno’s Paradoxes, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: plato.stanford.edu/entries/paradox-zeno/

Convergent Series, Khan Academy: www.khanacademy.org/math/calculus-home/series-calc/seq-conv-diverg-calc/v/convergent-and-divergent-sequences

“Game Show Problem” by Marilyn vos Savant, Parade Magazine, 1990: marilynvossavant.com/game-show-problem/

“Solution to the Grandfather Paradox” by minutephysics: usclip.net/video/XayNKY944lY/video.html

“The Faint Young Sun Paradox!” by MinuteEarth: usclip.net/video/qbnaes8X4iQ/video.html

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usclip.net/user/Vsauce

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Jack Prehoda6 hours agothe young son paradox is easy the molten core is slowly condenseing and the molten core was close enough to the surface to melt the ice.

adam allen17 hours agoVsauce Giovanni rabisi here

Bargain BaronsDay ago*CORRECTION* Pair-a-Docks refers to a set of Dr. martin shoes... and you spelled it wrong... HAAAAHahahahahaha *JUST KIDDING!!!*

MateFaceDay ago^{+1}4:50 Got a fortnite ad at the bottom, great

Bibit 10Day agoSnake, what have you done? You changed the future!! You've created a time paradox!

Kayla KarnageDay agoIt's like 3 am and I've reached this part of USclip. Though I understood the video, my head hurts now. Thank you lol.

NuclearNooberGooberDay agoIt's the glob.

Grimkei2 days agoI think... Nevermind you broke all thought process, i quit thinking

Like a lime2 days agoWait they did this on MYTHBUSTER!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Krool : gaming and blogging3 days agoYou forgot the green house effect that traps heat in the atmosphere

Alahna3 days agoMy reaction to this video: huh

Wolfchacer3 days agoGrandfather Paradox only works if you are remaining in the exact same timeline. However even in that same timeline you'd be protected if you did kill your grandfather from blinking into nothingness, as you are there and not in the future. Once you returned however no one there will know or have known you it will be as though you never existed to them but you will still be there.

Cameron Perez3 days agoAround 12:20, couldn't it have beem the Earth's internal heat or Gravity making bits of Ice grind against each other causing some amount of heat?

Blue 9133 days agoNot true, not false?

That creates a veridical paradox lol.

That1guy3 days agoTHIS SENTENCE IS FALSE

Spencer Evans3 days agoThe solution to the faint sun paradox:

Genesis 1:1

Ashlyn Archuleta3 days agoIf a person tells you to NOT take advise from anyone would you take their advise?

Ashlyn Archuleta3 days agoIf there was a set that contained every single set ever would that set contain itself?

Majed Kassar3 days agoGlobgoabgalab are you serious

Dave E.3 days agoI don't think the sun example is a paradox

Dilraj Hassan3 days agoI don't know much but wast the earth hot in its earlier days when it was formed? Then the earth was colling down and on the other hand the sun was getting hotter? kinda coming to an equilibrium. If this was the case then wasn't it natural for the earth to have liquid oceans? again, i don't know much.. Tbh i know less than average people does :'D

FFgamesftw3 days agothe only issue with the gameshow paradox is it takes the assumption that the host removes a choice based on what you choose. If the gameshow was always going to remove X even if you picked X than you'd actually be truly 50-50. Pick Z they remove X, Pick Y they remove X or Pick X they remove X. Which in this case assuming that your odds have improved would be wrong. Although I've never seen a gameshow remove the choice you just picked.

Klaus 743 days agoI don't know why you would have an issue with a math problem that has rules. The host knows where the prize is and must reveal a losing one from one of the two you didn't pick. Switching in that case has a 2/3 chance of winning. Without the rules of the host knowing where the prize is and he randomly opens one of the two you didn't pick results in a 1/2 chance of winning by either staying or switching. Because of rules to math problems we are able to determine what the correct results are.

Marshall Skates3 days agoWhy this guy sound like hiccup from how to train your dragon

Rod Z3 days agoI start zoning out when I fall behind in lectures-I zoned out in this one as well.

Shaqatk Roy3 days agoBootleg rambo YAY

R Q3 days agoThis guys needs to get laid, and fast - !

Unfounded Whisper3 days ago,./?;:'"

Andrew Arceneaux3 days agoCan God create a rock so hard he can't break it?

robby138514 days ago"Paradox" is Greek: pará means something like "related to yet distinct from" (think paranormal, paralegal, parallel, paraphrase) DOX is teaching or established knowledge, opinion. (Think doctrine, heterodoxy, doctor [PhD, not MD]) It is related to digit (the finger of the professor as he/she "points out" the thing being taught.

Troll Face4 days ago"im lying" the most common paradox because if i say that i am lying and i am lying then i would be telling the truth about me lying

Zane S4 days agoThis statement is false

david cordoba cubides4 days agoYou change the price xD I notice

Graham Lang4 days ago^{+1}Antinomy also know as a oxymoron.

Stick Dude4 days agoNew mission: Refuse this mission

Raz The Gun4 days agoThose who made a "few" strategy games

TehRoblox God4 days agothe next sentence is true

the last sentence is false

3rdiKkupar Lyngdoh. T4 days agoWhat is the distance between man n god?

Sheghostly4 days agoImho the big bang theory is an antimony because an object at rest will stay at rest.

Jaf IO Tutorials4 days ago^{+1}I don't get it. If you chose one and it is wrong the other two have a 50 50 chance.

Klaus 744 days agoI'm not at all surprised.

Jaf IO Tutorials4 days ago^{+1}I just opened 4 doors and neither of them had goats behind them.

Klaus 744 days agoThen you don't have a clue of understanding probability. There's a 2/3 chance of picking the door with a goat. The host must reveal one so the probability of him picking a goat is 1. Switching wins when both you and the host pick a door with a goat. So the chances of both of you picking a goat is 2/3x1=2/3.

Jaf IO Tutorials4 days agoNo clue what that means

Klaus 744 days agoThe host knows where the prize is and must reveal a losing one. So the chances of winning by switching is the product of the probabilities of both you and the host picking a wrong one, 2/3x1=2/3.

Michael DeMarco4 days agothis statement is false

Dzio's dZynes4 days agoParadox is a greek word, not latin.

PrinceLettuce4 days agoWouldn't the paradox fall apart if the host didn't know what was behind the doors?

Andy D5 days agoWho's still lost?

Robert Gift5 days agoTrilema Paradoxæ

Why I wanto bring a bomb on my airplane. The chance of two bombs being on the same aircraft ismaller than just one.

So by bringing one, which I will not detonate, I increase my probability of a safe trip.

new shOt5 days agoU really don't need a calculus to figure out if Alchillius win a match against Toroise ... u only need physics...

Know the man's acceleration n distance in between n the animal acceleration..

First Name Last Name5 days agoThis mad my brain hurt

Gigi janeau5 days agoSo like using double negatives in sentence

Emperor Buttman5 days agoZeno was right about the tortoise race, he just didn't take his thought experiment to the right conclusion. There are also infinite points between the tip of Achilles' nose and the end of his buttocks so he's one infinity moving through another infinity, same goes for the tortoise. Achilles, the tortoise, and their race track, still have finite size relative to each other, regardless of whether you're multiplying by a factor of 5, 100, or ∞... So even with this premise there is no problem with suggesting Achilles will catch up.

Interestingly, it is also logically impossible that Achilles will ever touch the tortoise no matter how much closer he gets, which is also physically true given that there is always space in between the smallest particles which make up, say, a block of cheese and a knife, even when the knife is inside the block of cheese.

Biggles Bear5 days agoWell to be perfectly honest, in my humble opinion, of course without offending anyone who thinks differently from my point of view, but also by looking into this matter in a different perspective and without being condemning of one's view's and by trying to make it objectified, and by considering each and every one's valid opinion, I honestly believe that I completely forgot what I was going to say.

the night hAunter war/russian/aidan/doctor/doyle5 days agothis guy actually copied vsause.

Eli B. Moss5 days agoin reference to the last given antimony of the Faint young star, would to core of the earth not regulate the temperature just enough to give liquid water? and if so could there not have been both? a layer of ice one the surface but liquid beneath due to the core temperature of the earth? I do know that the core temperature was very different then than it is now, but ti still makes logical sense to me.

JJokerMoreau5 days agoThis thing just makes zero damn sense. Adding infinite numbers is impossible (sorry mate). And distance isn't infinite, especially in the tortoise example. Yes, it was never under dispute that there are an INFINITE number of ways to describe the distance between two points, or that there's an infinite number of points between... well. Two points. But that has no relevance on a FINITE distance. Better yet, how can something that is finite, be infinite in the first place? Likely, because there's an infinite number of ways to DESCRIBE the distance, even if the distance is, clearly, finite and set.

TL;DR - Math playing some semantics here yo.

The Curse5 days agowhy does he have so many weird stuff

Carlos Moran5 days agoI died after he couldn’t get the tape off the card sooo funny

Joseph Eastman5 days agoperpetual motion is the next veridical

robert moore6 days agoMonty Hall still doesn't make sense to me. Either way you can only walk away with one envelope which would truly give you a 50% chance of picking the right one out of the 2 thats left

Klaus 745 days agoSwitching wins when both you and the host pick a wrong envelope. The chances of you picking one is 2/3 and for the host it's 1. So the chances of winning by switching is 2/3x1=2/3. If you picked envelope 1 and the prize is in 3 he reveals 2. If the prize is in 2 he reveals 3. So you win by switching if the prize is in either 2 or 3.

Annika Hung6 days agomy brain hurts now..

Jessicat6 days agoWhat if pinocchio said "my nose will grow now". If it grows, he's telling the truth, but he has to lie In order for it to grow. If it doesn't, he's lying, so it will, but then he'd be telling the truth...

Dragon Knight6 days agoIsn’t this 1:1 copied by vsauce?

Crispy Memes6 days ago^{+1}pentalemma

Trish like fish6 days ago^{+1}my 2 braincell hurt

Misako Wu6 days agoI love thinking about this stuff! It blows my mind up! Especially the liar one! It's beautiful!

Yungeez TV6 days ago1:24 - "WHAT IS A PARADOX!!!!!!"

Ganesha k s6 days agoWhy the Daredevil background music??

nivia Maeva Trindade7 days agoWait a minute... you are telling me that... No no no let's start it again: a paradox is ...

nivia Maeva Trindade7 days agoWait a minute... you are telling me that... No no no let's start it again: a paradox is ...

nivia Maeva Trindade7 days agoWait a minute... you are telling me that... No no no let's start it again: a paradox is ...

Jamie The Heavenly Jam7 days agoI thought of a paradox for elementary kids. "It's opposite day"

a real7 days ago10:33 somebody will be triggered with that tape

Joe7 days agoWhat is a TIME PARADOX?

DrQuin7 days agoIf time travel to the past is possible, would it require all particles and waves in the universe to reverse their trajectory or just the local area where time is being reversed? If its the latter, how would we account for any particles that have traveled beyond the field of influence that would have interacted with the objects during its time period.

Najeeb Yusuf Lawal8 days agoLife changing

John Nelson8 days agoA pair a docs is a couple of them.

J V8 days ago^{+1}The two ducks that are friends with the geese on the porch

BKnight7z8 days agoi dont really see how it makes a difference though because effectively the 2nd choice is being made whether you switch or decide to keep. it isnt only being made if you decide to switch it. if the two remaining had an equal chance at the beginning anyway how is the swap relevant at all? this idea makes sense because if having chose the opposite of the final two originally you would be in the same exact situation regardless of which way you believe already logically.

BKnight7z8 days agoKlaus 74 you don’t seem to understand what I’m saying. The choice is still in effect and doesn’t make a difference if you actually switch or not. You’re still making the decision. Just because one envelope is now guarenteed wrong from the other two doesn’t mean that it is guarenteed to have a correct pairing also. And just because the envelope you switch your original choice with from that group of two is from that group doesn’t make it any more relevant to the odds making of this entire event. Rather the 66% becomes immediately irrelevant as soon as the loser is opened and doesn’t become relevant until retroactively the winner is revealed. Yes at that point the winner could have been from the 66% group or not but in making that decision it didn’t matter if you switched or not because you still made that “50%” decision when it was presented. You should always make the decision not always make the switch is what I’m saying

Klaus 748 days agoYou seem very confused. With a 2/3 chance of picking a wrong envelope then there is a 2/3 chance the revealed one is the second one. So there's a 2/3 chance of winning by switching. With a 1/3 chance of picking the correct envelope then there is a 1/3 chance the revealed envelope is the first wrong one. So there's a 1/3 chance that the second wrong one is available to switch with.

BKnight7z8 days agoi.e. the problem being that the probability is relative to you the chooser but it cannot also be applied equally to the envelopes at each step themselves as they have no stake in the equation. from my perspective this paradox seems to do this and thus i think it may not be as valid as everyone thinks. essentially the concept needs a "chooser" to be validated therefore it is not conceptual in nature

BKnight7z8 days agowhat he should have said is effecitvely you are getting retroactively the decision to choose and be given 2 options at the beginning choice and having those 2 face off as a pair towards the one additional choice.

Klaus 747 days agoIf you pick envelope #1 and the prize is in #2, he will reveal #3. And if the prize is in #3 he will reveal #2. So you will win by switching if the prize is in EITHER #2 or #3 and you can only win by staying if the prize is in #1.

Jonathan 698 days agoGrowing up is finally starting to understand what he’s saying

Thomas Hummer9 days ago^{+3}I have a paradox

Two people are named yu and mi

Yu says you are mi, but I am yu, so who are we?

BegunGorilla375Day agoYou're Mi and I'm Yu

Scott Pittendrigh9 days agoA paradox is just the mispronunciation of the phrase "pair of duck." It's two ducks.

mikasa ackerman9 days agoI'm left-handed too

Unoriginal Username10 days ago1:24 *My brain at 3 AM*

Mark Shuford10 days agoEven being familiar with the Monty Hall problem I have to say VSauce made it so much more clear with the pie chart. I've not seen that approach before.

As to "PhDs said she was wrong". PhDs in what discipline? Underwater basket-weaving? It'd be good if all PhDs had a minors-in-Math level of mathematics... but we know this is not the case. We differentiate between BA and BS and MA and MS... we need PhDA and PhDS, or some such, to warn folks as to who can be trusted on technology matters.

JusticeLeagueTv10 days agoUsing words i dont understand to explain a words i don't understand

i dont smoke i succ10 days agoi got lost

xdragon 0110 days agoOne thing you get wrong , luck can't be proven mathematically so the % in odds doesn't mean anything .

Klaus 749 days agoIn the MHP they are a 1/3 chance of winning the car by staying, and a 2/3 chance of winning the car by switching. There cannot be any other probabilities.

xdragon 019 days ago+Klaus 74 Like the true odds could be 1% to 99% or 50%-50% they could be anything.

xdragon 019 days ago+Klaus 74 Yes .I don't say it doesn't exist though.There is a difference

Klaus 749 days agoYou said luck can't be proven mathematically and now you are saying that 'luck' can't even be spotted....lol.

xdragon 019 days ago+Klaus 74 You can't know "how" lucky you where since there is no application to a type that allows us to know which odds are considered luck or not .

The Dank Lord Of The Sith10 days agoI am lying

Couldn’t it mean you are lying about lying so therefore you are telling the truth when you say you are lying because you’re lying when you say you’re lying

Simon Ghoul10 days agoActually, paradox "a seemingly absurd or self-contradictory statement or proposition that when investigated or explained may prove to be well founded or true.

"

You literally gave the wrong definition to paradox and then defined it in the video with a 10+ minutes explanation

Magda M10 days ago12:34 or earth core melt the ice...(: ???

EDIT:tho thinks this teory is good,thanks (:

King's Fine Woodworking10 days agoPositively the worst explanation of paradoxes I could possibly imagine. Unfortunately, I can't give 2 thumbs down.

Hollow Fall11 days agothe turtle paradox makes sense when you realize that instead of continuously moving, the turtle is actually taking steps and then stopping, so there's a point when Achilles moves but the turtle doesn't.

Ukelele Screamo11 days agoWhy would I wat 1 million dollars when I can have the globglobgabgalab

finch elo11 days agoi watched this my head hurts then my period cramps came

*_noice_*

finch elo7 days ago+NightStorm i actually understood it. the best example would be "It's opposite day".

NightStorm11 days ago^{+1}finch elo so if I traveled to the future and had my future self to tell me everything that happens in life and I go back in time to the moment I left and changed Those choices wouldn’t that create a paradox since the future changed my future self would of told what happened because that timeline doesn’t exist anymore?

Andria Wang11 days agoI know that this isn't the purpose of the Achille's paradox, but still, I think of the distance as proportional, so when Achilles runs like 100 meters, the tortoise could only travel about 10 meters, so Achilles could easily overtake the tortoise. Can anyone help me understand why this isn't right?

Andria Wang11 days ago+Klaus 74 Oh. Okay. The way it was explained led me to believe that it was a paradox for us to solve, and it didn't seem like a hard paradox.

Klaus 7411 days agoThe turtle created a paradox for Achilles alone and not us as readers of the story. Achilles wasn't nearly as smart as the turtle and was fooled by his shelled friend into believing he wouldn't catch up with him, given that he would have a slight head start. So he then refused to race him even though he originally asked for one.

Boyls11 days agou n v e l o w p

Ellie Bellie12 days agoMy paradox:

Let's say two people are in an argument. Person A and Person B.

Person A claims: There is no such thing as a false opinion

Person B claims: There is such thing as a false opinion

Both people are arguing over which one is correct.

Person A says there is no such thing as a false opinion (which counters Person B's opinion), so they're technically stating their opinion, which seems false to the other person because in an argument there are (typically) two opposite sides.

So person A is saying that there is no such thing as a false opinion, but [Person B's] opinion is false based on [Person A's] view.

Silent Sahara12 days agovsauce vids makes the brain exercise. i think my brain has buffed up a little. vsauce = brain gym

Pipin0612 days agoThis comment is a lie. Btw tommorow is Saturday

dracko rose12 days ago^{+1}Yo I ain’t gonna lie when I fully understand what paradox meant in the end I just notice he had color blue and red, one good one bad like if you get it

Show Me Your Moves12 days agoLayton: This reminds me of a puzzle

Marjan Josifoski12 days ago3 people went to buy beer, they each had 10 cents and beer cost 25 cents, cashier can't give equal change to that 3 people so he give 1 cent each to that 3 people znd 2 cents keep for him self, so basically that 3 people paid 9 cent each for the beer which is 9×3=27 and that 2 cents that cashier keep is 29 cents there is the god damn cent

Marjan Josifoski10 days ago+Klaus 74 i know the answer but it was real struggle years ago, most people can't find the answer

Klaus 7412 days agoThey each spent 9 cents for a total of 27 cents. 2 went for a tip and 25 went for the beer. You subtract the 2 from the 27 to account for the price of the beer, and not add the 2 to the 27.