When We Met Other Human Species

  • Published on Jul 9, 2019
  • We all belong to the only group of hominins on the planet today. But we weren’t always alone. 100,000 years ago, Eurasia was home to other hominin species, some of which we know our ancestors met, and spent some quality time with.
    Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Fabrizio de Rossi from Studio 252mya for their wonderful hominin illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/
    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usclip.net/user/pbsdigitalstudios
    Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:
    Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan
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    References: docs.google.com/document/d/1h8iVAIugVPfxOcCZKeZxtZfa6mNP8V7xMhS_vxmDRl0/edit?usp=sharing
  • Science & TechnologyScience & Technology

Comments • 5 935

  • PBS Eons
    PBS Eons  3 months ago +1222

    Some commenters have pointed out that calling Neanderthals and Denisovans “other hominin species” in this episode breaks the rules of the biological species concept (BSC), which says if two things can interbreed, then they’re the same species. Some paleoanthropologists would agree. They consider both Neanderthals and Denisovans to be subspecies of Homo sapiens, rather than separate species. Other experts would say that Neanderthals have a set of features that make them clearly distinguishable from Homo sapiens, putting them outside the range of variation we include in our species. And we hardly know the Denisovans - like we said in the video, they don’t even have a scientific name yet.

    The incredible thing about this is that we can even think about applying the BSC to fossils at all. The BSC is a species concept based on living organisms, and it’s only been within the last two decades or so that we’ve had the ancient DNA and the technology to test hypotheses about interbreeding in extinct groups. And it’s not the only way to define a species, either, so it will likely be a while (if ever) before anthropologists decide whether we’re a different species, subspecies, or population from the Neanderthals and Denisovans.

    (Darcy Shapiro, PhD, script editor)

    • Bill Keck
      Bill Keck Day ago

      Sometimes I wonder. If a paleontologist found fossils in different parts of the world would they classify Pygmies (about 4 ft tall( as the same species as Zulus (about 7 ft tall.) What about Bushmen of the Kalahari, or Asians, say Japanese. or Australian Aborigines. Or Mayans? Would these all be classified as the same "species"? Again, remember, I talking about dead fossils.
      I recently saw an Tyrannosaur exhibit at the American Museum of Natural, where they've recently identified that small T-Rex-like "species" are actually the same species of Tyrannosaurus Rex, but at different ages: baby, adolescent, young adult, adult.

    • Alex2149
      Alex2149 Day ago

      PBS Eons γες

    • pauldh62
      pauldh62 3 days ago

      @Flightrisk When we have thoroughly aired this one 50 to 100 years from now I reckon there will be several more brothers or sister human species discovered, all assimilated with Sapiens Sapiens.

    • Flightrisk
      Flightrisk 4 days ago

      PBS Eons they need to be looking at the specific blood types. People should consider that we are the product of other types of beings. Rh- folks for example have an extra vertebra as well they have more copper streaming in their blood, making them far more conductive! These things are important to consider when looking at our ancient ancestors or root races. Then we must always remember that the truth is right inside all of us, safely stored in our DNA. Time to start researching inwardly💚💫

    • Rayvn e'Kieron
      Rayvn e'Kieron 4 days ago

      @pauldh62 That's essentially true, as far as I can tell! So resonably, dogs could be considered a subspecies of wolves. But dogs can interbreed with coyotes and jackals as well, which are also considered to be separate species.

  • Kiritu George
    Kiritu George 4 hours ago

    There was a subspecies of humans that interbred with ancient Africans and their DNA is strong in peoples like Khoisan, Pygmies etc and weak in modern Bantus. This subspecies is similar to the Neanderthals interbreeding with ancient Eurasians. They havent been properly researched though.
    Much love from Kenya.

  • Karandxp
    Karandxp 4 hours ago +1

    Damn...this makes me wonder how long my bones gonna last.

  • Jermin Sanchez
    Jermin Sanchez 8 hours ago

    Anyone else bothered by the fact that he pronounces neanderTHALL as neanderTALL

  • 終極神卡
    終極神卡 9 hours ago

    Jokes on you frikkr I’m a Martian

  • Nicolas Licastro
    Nicolas Licastro 13 hours ago +1

    -That pseudo-human is pseudo sexy
    +So... what are you saying?
    -Well it's almost as attractive as my ex now that I hate her...
    +Pff, neolitic problems. Look at my alpha males courtship skills

  • Florian Müller
    Florian Müller 16 hours ago

    Did your cutter / video editor count how many times he used the same illustrations?

    SEEtheREPLAY 18 hours ago

    Wait. So there is DNA that can’t be traced to Africa? I thought Africa was the cradle?

  • Nefaryus Drake
    Nefaryus Drake 19 hours ago

    Mating with hominins made Ad-Hominins

  • Jacen Solo
    Jacen Solo 21 hour ago +1

    Neanderthals were... BIG BRAIN

  • Dindin Private
    Dindin Private Day ago

    A bit more proof of hybrid vigour...

  • Axios .king
    Axios .king Day ago

    Everyone but Africans

  • Jinnie Lee
    Jinnie Lee Day ago

    this was such a good video

  • richtaco
    richtaco Day ago

    People just believe whatever scientists say. This is hilarious

  • Sam D
    Sam D Day ago

    Maybe they didn't die out, maybe we all just made love and there were more homo sapiens than Neanderthals or Denisovans so more of our DNA ended up in the batter.

  • Stinky Hernandez

    I should be writing a science term paper right now but im watching this

  • peerless sector
    peerless sector Day ago

    I swear he is mispronouncing "Neanderthal"

  • Dalton Ivey
    Dalton Ivey Day ago

    They were slaves and eventually worked to death.

  • Armin X
    Armin X Day ago

    Sapiens - Human
    Florensis - Hobbits
    Neanderthals - basically dwarfs
    So basically some of the most prominent species from the Fantasy genre are based on ancient relatives?

  • WeGotSwag
    WeGotSwag Day ago

    Isn’t it funny how every recreation of the new species look Caucasian

  • Eshe’s_World
    Eshe’s_World Day ago

    The missing link🤔

  • Ashadieeyah Sultana

    Personally I think what have Homo sapiens Sapiens (modern humans) an advantage is our ability to adapt rapidly. Wether that’s through more advanced technology or through interbreeding with species adapted to those locations

  • Robert Ford
    Robert Ford 2 days ago +1

    Love this video

  • rebeccamaria63
    rebeccamaria63 2 days ago

    Basically, they were ALL HUMANS of SOME kind. Why be so species-ist. They were all conscious hominids. We were just the trickiest, luckiest and probably the most aggressive, lets face it.

  • Duck Moore
    Duck Moore 2 days ago +1

    So... Does this mean I’m a “mutt”?

  • Duck Moore
    Duck Moore 2 days ago

    So WHO do we blame for the appendix?

  • Doctor Medkit
    Doctor Medkit 2 days ago

    It bugs me so much that he keeps saying Neandertalls

  • Mojo Dope
    Mojo Dope 2 days ago

    2:30 translates at the top of the bones not the pit of the bones which refers to down.

  • Alejo petinato
    Alejo petinato 2 days ago

    hi man awesome video! greatings from argentina! a little CORRECTION: sima de los huesos is not pit of bones, "sima" its the top o a mount or mountain. mi respects! keep doing ur viedos are great!

  • christian cravens
    christian cravens 2 days ago

    Holds true today as yesterday...dudes will get freaky with pretty much anything

  • Sacha David
    Sacha David 2 days ago +1

    The lesson of the story is to breed with strangers as much as possible!

  • T. Ferttita is a Commie bootlicker

    He didnt mention homo naledi, homo florensis, and possibly even homo erectus were alive at the same time as well.

  • Victor Prokop
    Victor Prokop 3 days ago

    Is the "Sexy Neanderthal Theory" plausable?

  • Brick Animations
    Brick Animations 3 days ago +1

    It’s sad that we are the only human species left but imagine the racism if all the species were still here

  • Rizal Punio
    Rizal Punio 3 days ago

    More discrimination I think

  • Lirrulewon
    Lirrulewon 3 days ago

    So at the end of the day we are all Africans hmmmm
    some mixed some not.

  • Aster B
    Aster B 3 days ago

    hMmMmM this could be an anime

  • THAT eLmo GUY
    THAT eLmo GUY 3 days ago


  • Sergio Alcantara
    Sergio Alcantara 3 days ago

    According to my dna test I have Neanderthal dna in me. That might be the cause of my stupidity at times. 😂

  • Anthony R.
    Anthony R. 3 days ago +1

    What are names of the background tones? Or what genre is that I feel like some of them get me in a creative mood lol

  • Christian Soriano
    Christian Soriano 3 days ago

    Sima means top of.. usually a mountain Hill etc... Not a pit

  • cenkiss2331
    cenkiss2331 3 days ago

    We are the neandarthals. They did not get extinct. This nonsense theory called out of africa has no basis. Africa has no civilization , all traces of greatest Human civilizations are around mediterranian sea and fertile crescent. Yet the fools insist on something ridiculous because of politics.

  • Yen Feng
    Yen Feng 3 days ago

    😂😂 1800 years there is but one race the human race so are people who saying there unicorns salvores or whatever.

    BDFFRNT 3 days ago +1

    We are not one lone branch, but rather one homogeneous canopy. Love the video, and the green ❤

  • Angel A
    Angel A 3 days ago +1

    Takeaway: If someone looks like you (I.e. same ethnic group), you are too close in the gene pool- RUN don't walk and find someone else to procreate with😉😁

  • Ana R
    Ana R 4 days ago

    Its not sima de los huesos but cima de los huesos

  • the one momojombo
    the one momojombo 4 days ago

    If human kill another human being just because of their skin colour.. What makes you think a different humanoid species will survive our human cruelty?

  • Matthew Thompson
    Matthew Thompson 4 days ago

    Make a video on why scientists always over-prununciate words. Its neanderTHAL not neandertall smh

  • Shaun Cummings
    Shaun Cummings 4 days ago +1

    I’m telling my church on you

  • KraggleWulf
    KraggleWulf 4 days ago

    Well I know where my sex drive comes from now.

  • Lindsay Williams
    Lindsay Williams 4 days ago +3

    What about studying the genes/DNA of indigenous people? I feel like that could show a lot of information

    • Mingye Wang
      Mingye Wang 20 hours ago

      Scientists already do that - they know it’s dumb to look at very well known and relatively recent colonizations because there’s usually nothing new to learn in that. When you look at all the haplogroup things and how they map out how humans migrated you will see how they have done that for quite some time.

    • Knaughty F
      Knaughty F 2 days ago

      Indigenous is a very vague term in human evolution. Even the oldest fossil sample found in North America (Arlington springs man/woman/whatever) is just a boring homo sapien.

  • victor soto
    victor soto 4 days ago

    So, Native Africans, who never migrated and met others, are the only "true" Homo Sapiens. There is more diversity of DNA in Africa than anywhere else in the world...the more diverse, the genetics, the healthier the body.
    The combination of inbreeding and interbreeding, by western man, has diluted the bloodline of "true" humans.

  • Jose Rodriguez
    Jose Rodriguez 4 days ago

    Is that Mr. Green?

  • Isa_735
    Isa_735 4 days ago

    I freaking love this guy

  • Nick Sklavos
    Nick Sklavos 4 days ago

    Very nice and very informative. Thank you very much. Of course there is always the 5% that don’t like to hear scientific facts. What do you do let’s laugh.

  • Mister WarBeast
    Mister WarBeast 4 days ago

    Neanderthals didn't go extinct... we just learned to blend in and not be noticed...

  • Marty Jansing
    Marty Jansing 4 days ago

    homo sapien archaic, homo sapien neanderthals. homo sapien sapien....populations have variations

  • Rebekah kissel
    Rebekah kissel 4 days ago

    Humans just understood how to make fire

  • beth, i guess
    beth, i guess 4 days ago +2

    i love learning about this stuff. it makes me sad knowing that no other hominids are alive anymore... humans are so lonely. id love to have a close relative species :-( i wish i could go back in time to meet some neanderthals or denisovans

  • jayrozzle
    jayrozzle 4 days ago

    Even though I already know none of this is 100% accurate; are you telling the people that descendants from Africa don't have any DNA coming from Neanderthals 😬🤫.. Maybe Darwin was right about evolution.. Just not talking about Africa or its descendants.. Neanderthals are cavemen. Very similar to primates. T